Department of Cosmic Rays and Chronology

¨    1. Historical background
     Cosmic Ray research in Brazil began in the early thirties, when the authorities of the State of São Paulo convinced a group of European scientists to come to Brazil to implement the University of São Paulo (USP). Levi-Strauss, Stammreich, Albanese, Fantappiè, Giuseppe Occhialini, and Gleb Wataghin (born in Russia but working in Italy) were among those pioneers. Soon after arriving in Brazil, with his enthusiasm and his cordiality, he rapidly formed a group of selected students. Among them were  Marcelo Damy de Souza Santos,   Oscar Sala,   Paulus Aulus Pompeia,  Mário Schenberg Cesare Mansueto Giulio Lattes and others.
     In the 60's, the Government of the State of São Paulo decided to create its second State University, at Campinas (UNICAMP). Prof. Zeferino Vaz, educator and scientist (Medical Sciences), was designated for that hard job. He used to repeat that the three priorities of the new-born University should be: brains, brains and brains. In 1967, he invited Prof. Lattes, then at the Institute of Physics of the University of São Paulo, to start the researches in Physics at UNICAMP, cooperating with Marcelo Damy de Souza Santos in the foundation of the Institute, that a few years latter was named Gleb Wataghin Physics Institute .
     Scientific activities of the Department of Cosmic Rays and Chronology (DRCC) began in 1967, with the arrival of Prof. C.M.G. Lattes. Together with Cecil Powell, he had been one of the key persons in the discovery of the pion 20 years before, and moved to this town, Campinas, with the group that was working with him at the University of São Paulo (see also Lattes' description of the discovery of the pion).
     At those times the activities at the DRCC were: geochronology (using micas for dating purposes) and emulsion chamber experiment, in collaboration with Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF) and several Japanese universities (mainly Waseda University and University of Tokyo ) operating an huge emulsion chamber on Mount Chacaltaya, at 5,220m a.s.l., near La Paz, Bolivia.

¨    2. Present situation
     After the Group of Chronology and the Group of Emulsion, in the beginning of the 70's the Group of Theory started its activities, in the middle of the 80's the Group of Leptons and in 1991 the Group of History and Theory of Science was implemented.
     The members of the Department (and their phone numbers) are now: A.C. Fauth (78-85531), A. Koch Torres Assis (78-85515), A. Turtelli (78-85532), C. Dobrigkeit (78-85529), C.O. Escobar (78-85537), E.H. Shibuya (78-85513), I.M. Martin (78-85518), J.A. Chinellato, Chief of the Department, (78-85511), J. Bellandi Filho (78-85454), J.C. Hadler Neto (78-85514), M.J. Menon (78-85530), M.M. Guzzo (78-85526), R.A. Martins (78-85516), R.C. Rigitano (78-85534), R.J.M. Covolan (78-85527).

¨    3. More information
     Cosmic Ray Physicists present their scientific results at the International Cosmic Ray Conferences, held each two years (an unbroken series started in 1946), under the auspices of the IUPAP (International Union of Pure and Applied Physics). The last ICRC was held in Salt Lake City (Utah, USA), from August 17th to 25th, 1999, and the next will be held in Hamburg, Germany, in 2001.
     Another important international meeting in this area is the International Symposium on Very High Energy Cosmic Ray Interactions. The XI ISVHECRI (its homepage is still available) was hosted by this Department, from July 17th to July 21st, 2000. Papers presented at the XI ISVHECRI will appear in Nuclear Physics B, Proc. Supp.
     Details about the scientific production of the Department nowadays are found also in the Research Reports of the Institute (HTML, 1997, they have only the Portuguese version available at the moment).
     Recent news about the Cosmic Ray community are found in the Cosmic Ray News Bulletin (CosNews), now published only electronically under the responsibility of the Commission on Cosmic Rays of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics.
     A very extensive list of Cosmic Ray Research Groups around the world is found at the Max-Planck-Institute für Kernphysik , in Heidelberg.

¨    4. Homepages
Group of Leptons
      LVD Collaboration
      Pierre Auger Observatory
      Raios Cósmicos, em português
Group of History and Theory of Science
Group of Neutrinos (GEFAN)

¨    5. Contact
Postal address
Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia

Phone numbers:
+55 19 7885522 - voice
+55 19 7885314 - voice
+55 19 7885512 - fax
Local Time = UT-0300
Clerk: Sandra Fonseca

Last amended Nov 10th,2000, 0250 AM, LT.
Written with Arachnophilia and checked with Netscape Communicator, version 4.5
Curator: A.Turtelli